Global Fenugreeked Extract Market Professional Survey Report 2019

Fenugreek Seed Extract is a derivative extracted from a series of processing of fenugreek seeds. Fenugreek seed extract productions are known to as their antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and antitumorigenic properties.
Fenugreek seeds in powdered or extracted oil form are the primary source of medicinal fenugreek. It has been traditionally used for indigestion, hair loss, edema, enhance lactation, treat diabetes, and to control muscle spasms.

The global Fenugreeked Extract market was valued at 4 million US$ in 2018 and will reach 11 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 13.3% during 2019-2025.
This report focuses on Fenugreeked Extract volume and value at global level, regional level and company level. From a global perspective, this report represents overall Fenugreeked Extract market size by analyzing historical data and future prospect.
Regionally, this report categorizes the production, apparent consumption, export and import of Fenugreeked Extract in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India.
For each manufacturer covered, this report analyzes their Fenugreeked Extract manufacturing sites, capacity, production, ex-factory price, revenue and market share in global market.

The following manufacturers are covered:
Arjuna Natural Extracts
Nutra Green Biotechnology
Ambe Phytoextracts
Unique Organics
Indus Biotech
Bio-Botanica
Hunan nature biotechnology
Chereso Lifesciences
Novoherb
Creative Enzymes

Segment by Regions
North America
Europe
China
Japan
Southeast Asia
India

Segment by Type
Powder
Oil

Segment by Application
Pharmaceuticals
Food and Beverage
Cosmetics

Table of Contents

Executive Summary
1 Industry Overview of Fenugreeked Extract
1.1 Definition of Fenugreeked Extract
1.2 Fenugreeked Extract Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate Comparison by Types (2014-2025)
1.2.2 Powder
1.2.3 Oil
1.3 Fenugreeked Extract Segment by Applications
1.3.1 Global Fenugreeked Extract Consumption Comparison by Applications (2014-2025)
1.3.2 Pharmaceuticals
1.3.3 Food and Beverage
1.3.4 Cosmetics
1.4 Global Fenugreeked Extract Overall Market
1.4.1 Global Fenugreeked Extract Revenue (2014-2025)
1.4.2 Global Fenugreeked Extract Production (2014-2025)
1.4.3 North America Fenugreeked Extract Status and Prospect (2014-2025)
1.4.4 Europe Fenugreeked Extract Status and Prospect (2014-2025)
1.4.5 China Fenugreeked Extract Status and Prospect (2014-2025)
1.4.6 Japan Fenugreeked Extract Status and Prospect (2014-2025)
1.4.7 Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Status and Prospect (2014-2025)
1.4.8 India Fenugreeked Extract Status and Prospect (2014-2025)

2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis
2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers
2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Fenugreeked Extract
2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Fenugreeked Extract
2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Fenugreeked Extract

3 Development and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Fenugreeked Extract
3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date
3.2 Global Fenugreeked Extract Manufacturing Plants Distribution
3.3 Major Manufacturers Technology Source and Market Position of Fenugreeked Extract
3.4 Recent Development and Expansion Plans

4 Key Figures of Major Manufacturers
4.1 Fenugreeked Extract Production and Capacity Analysis
4.2 Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Analysis
4.3 Fenugreeked Extract Price Analysis
4.4 Market Concentration Degree

5 Fenugreeked Extract Regional Market Analysis
5.1 Fenugreeked Extract Production by Regions
5.1.1 Global Fenugreeked Extract Production by Regions
5.1.2 Global Fenugreeked Extract Revenue by Regions
5.2 Fenugreeked Extract Consumption by Regions
5.3 North America Fenugreeked Extract Market Analysis
5.3.1 North America Fenugreeked Extract Production
5.3.2 North America Fenugreeked Extract Revenue
5.3.3 Key Manufacturers in North America
5.3.4 North America Fenugreeked Extract Import and Export
5.4 Europe Fenugreeked Extract Market Analysis
5.4.1 Europe Fenugreeked Extract Production
5.4.2 Europe Fenugreeked Extract Revenue
5.4.3 Key Manufacturers in Europe
5.4.4 Europe Fenugreeked Extract Import and Export
5.5 China Fenugreeked Extract Market Analysis
5.5.1 China Fenugreeked Extract Production
5.5.2 China Fenugreeked Extract Revenue
5.5.3 Key Manufacturers in China
5.5.4 China Fenugreeked Extract Import and Export
5.6 Japan Fenugreeked Extract Market Analysis
5.6.1 Japan Fenugreeked Extract Production
5.6.2 Japan Fenugreeked Extract Revenue
5.6.3 Key Manufacturers in Japan
5.6.4 Japan Fenugreeked Extract Import and Export
5.7 Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Market Analysis
5.7.1 Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Production
5.7.2 Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Revenue
5.7.3 Key Manufacturers in Southeast Asia
5.7.4 Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Import and Export
5.8 India Fenugreeked Extract Market Analysis
5.8.1 India Fenugreeked Extract Production
5.8.2 India Fenugreeked Extract Revenue
5.8.3 Key Manufacturers in India
5.8.4 India Fenugreeked Extract Import and Export

6 Fenugreeked Extract Segment Market Analysis (by Type)
6.1 Global Fenugreeked Extract Production by Type
6.2 Global Fenugreeked Extract Revenue by Type
6.3 Fenugreeked Extract Price by Type

7 Fenugreeked Extract Segment Market Analysis (by Application)
7.1 Global Fenugreeked Extract Consumption by Application
7.2 Global Fenugreeked Extract Consumption Market Share by Application (2014-2019)

8 Fenugreeked Extract Major Manufacturers Analysis
8.1 Arjuna Natural Extracts
8.1.1 Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.1.2 Arjuna Natural Extracts Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.1.3 Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.1.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.2 Nutra Green Biotechnology
8.2.1 Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.2.2 Nutra Green Biotechnology Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.2.3 Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.2.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.3 Ambe Phytoextracts
8.3.1 Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.3.2 Ambe Phytoextracts Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.3.3 Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.3.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.4 Unique Organics
8.4.1 Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.4.2 Unique Organics Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.4.3 Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.4.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.5 Indus Biotech
8.5.1 Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.5.2 Indus Biotech Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.5.3 Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.5.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.6 Bio-Botanica
8.6.1 Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.6.2 Bio-Botanica Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.6.3 Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.6.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.7 Hunan nature biotechnology
8.7.1 Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.7.2 Hunan nature biotechnology Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.7.3 Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.7.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.8 Chereso Lifesciences
8.8.1 Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.8.2 Chereso Lifesciences Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.8.3 Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.8.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.9 Novoherb
8.9.1 Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.9.2 Novoherb Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.9.3 Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.9.4 Main Business and Markets Served
8.10 Creative Enzymes
8.10.1 Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
8.10.2 Creative Enzymes Product Introduction, Application and Specification
8.10.3 Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
8.10.4 Main Business and Markets Served

9 Development Trend of Analysis of Fenugreeked Extract Market
9.1 Global Fenugreeked Extract Market Trend Analysis
9.1.1 Global Fenugreeked Extract Market Size (Volume and Value) Forecast 2019-2025
9.2 Fenugreeked Extract Regional Market Trend
9.2.1 North America Fenugreeked Extract Forecast 2019-2025
9.2.2 Europe Fenugreeked Extract Forecast 2019-2025
9.2.3 China Fenugreeked Extract Forecast 2019-2025
9.2.4 Japan Fenugreeked Extract Forecast 2019-2025
9.2.5 Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Forecast 2019-2025
9.2.6 India Fenugreeked Extract Forecast 2019-2025
9.3 Fenugreeked Extract Market Trend (Product Type)
9.4 Fenugreeked Extract Market Trend (Application)

10.1 Marketing Channel
10.1.1 Direct Marketing
10.1.2 Indirect Marketing
10.3 Fenugreeked Extract Customers

11 Market Dynamics
11.1 Market Trends
11.2 Opportunities
11.3 Market Drivers
11.4 Challenges
11.5 Influence Factors

12 Conclusion
13 Appendix
13.1 Methodology/Research Approach
13.1.1 Research Programs/Design
13.1.2 Market Size Estimation
13.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
13.2 Data Source
13.2.1 Secondary Sources
13.2.2 Primary Sources
13.3 Author List
13.4 Disclaimer

List of Tables and Figures
Figure Picture of Fenugreeked Extract
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT) Growth Rate Comparison by Types (2014-2025)
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share by Types in 2018
Figure Powder Product Picture
Figure Oil Product Picture
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Consumption (MT) Comparison by Applications (2014-2025)
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Consumption Market Share by Applications in 2018
Figure Pharmaceuticals
Figure Food and Beverage
Figure Cosmetics
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Revenue (Million USD) (2014-2025)
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT) (2014-2025)
Figure North America Fenugreeked Extract Market Size (Million USD) (2014-2025)
Figure Europe Fenugreeked Extract Market Size (Million USD) (2014-2025)
Figure China Fenugreeked Extract Market Size (Million USD) (2014-2025)
Figure Japan Fenugreeked Extract Market Size (Million USD) (2014-2025)
Figure Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Market Size (Million USD) (2014-2025)
Figure India Fenugreeked Extract Market Size (Million USD) (2014-2025)
Table Fenugreeked Extract Raw Material and Suppliers
Table Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Fenugreeked Extract in 2018
Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Fenugreeked Extract
Figure Industry Chain Structure of Fenugreeked Extract
Table Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Key Manufacturers
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Manufacturing Plants Distribution
Table Fenugreeked Extract Major Manufacturers Technology Source and Market Position
Table Recent Development and Expansion Plans in Future
Table Fenugreeked Extract Capacity (MT) of Major Manufacturers (2014-2019)
Table Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT) of Major Manufacturers (2014-2019)
Table Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share of Major Manufacturers (2014-2019)
Figure Fenugreeked Extract Production Share by Manufacturers in 2018
Table Fenugreeked Extract Revenue (Million US$) of Major Manufacturers (2014-2019)
Table Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share of Major Manufacturers (2014-2019)
Figure Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Share by Manufacturers in 2018
Table Fenugreeked Extract Average Price (USD/MT) of Major Manufacturers (2014-2019)
Table Global Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Production by Regions 2014-2019 (MT)
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share by Regions 2014-2019
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share by Regions in 2018
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Revenue by Regions 2014-2019 (Million USD)
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share by Regions 2014-2019
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2018
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Consumption by Regions 2014-2019 (MT)
Table Global Fenugreeked Extract Consumption Market Share by Regions 2014-2019
Figure North America Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate 2014-2019 (MT)
Figure North America Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate 2014-2019 (Million USD)
Table North America Fenugreeked Extract Production, Consumption Import and Export (MT)
Figure Europe Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate 2014-2019 (MT)
Figure Europe Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate 2014-2019 (Million USD)
Table Europe Fenugreeked Extract Production, Consumption Import and Export (MT)
Figure China Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate 2014-2019 (MT)
Figure China Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate 2014-2019 (Million USD)
Table China Fenugreeked Extract Production, Consumption Import and Export (MT)
Figure Japan Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate 2014-2019 (MT)
Figure Japan Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate 2014-2019 (Million USD)
Table Japan Fenugreeked Extract Production, Consumption Import and Export (MT)
Figure Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate 2014-2019 (MT)
Figure Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate 2014-2019 (Million USD)
Table Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Production, Consumption Import and Export (MT)
Figure India Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate 2014-2019 (MT)
Figure India Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate 2014-2019 (Million USD)
Table India Fenugreeked Extract Production, Consumption Import and Export (MT)
Figure Global Consumption Fenugreeked Extract Market Share by Application (2014-2019)
Figure Global Value (Consumption) Fenugreeked Extract Market Share by Application (2014-2019)
Table Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Arjuna Natural Extracts Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Nutra Green Biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Ambe Phytoextracts Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Unique Organics Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Indus Biotech Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Bio-Botanica Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Hunan nature biotechnology Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Chereso Lifesciences Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Novoherb Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Table Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Production Sites and Area Served
Table Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Product Introduction, Application and Specification
Table Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT), Revenue (Million USD), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2014-2019)
Table Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate (2014-2019)
Table Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Production Market Share (2014-2019)
Figure Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Market Share (2014-2019)
Table Creative Enzymes Fenugreeked Extract Main Business and Markets Served
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Production (MT) Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Revenue (Million USD) Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025
Figure Global Fenugreeked Extract Sales Price (USD/MT) Forecast 2019-2025
Figure North America Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (MT)
Figure North America Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (Million USD)
Figure Europe Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (MT)
Figure Europe Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (Million USD)
Figure China Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (MT)
Figure China Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (Million USD)
Figure Japan Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (MT)
Figure Japan Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (Million USD)
Figure Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (MT)
Figure Southeast Asia Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (Million USD)
Figure India Fenugreeked Extract Production Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (MT)
Figure India Fenugreeked Extract Revenue Growth Rate Forecast 2019-2025 (Million USD)
Table Global Production (MT) of Fenugreeked Extract by Type (2019-2025)
Table Global Consumption (MT) of Fenugreeked Extract by Application (2019-2025)
Table Fenugreeked Extract Distributors List
Table Fenugreeked Extract Customers List
Table Market Key Trends
Table Key Opportunities
Table Market Key Drivers
Table Key Challenges
Table Key Influence Factors
Table Research Programs/Design for This Report
Figure Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for This Report
Figure Data Triangulation
Table Key Data Information from Secondary Sources
Table Key Data Information from Primary Sources

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